The 1st – 23rd Conferences on Women and the Civil War
- Conferences Held: 23
- In-person: 22
- Virtual: 1
- Locations of Conferences: 16
- Lecture Presentations: 181
- Workshops: 39
- Field Trips / Tours: 53
- Speakers (individual): 170
- Confederate: 62
- Union: 71
- Both sides: 35
- Homefront: 105
- Warfront: 61
- Prewar: 2
- Postwar: 13
- Arlington, VA 
- Baltimore, MD (College of Notre Dame)
- Blacksburg, VA (Virginia Tech University)
- Carlisle, PA
- Chambersburg, PA (Wilson College)
- Emmitsburg, MD (Mt. Saint Mary’s University)
- Exton, PA
- Frederick, MD (Hood College) 
- Harrisonburg, VA
- Nashville, TN (Belmont University)
- Pittsburgh, PA (Duquesne University)
- Raleigh, NC (Peace College)
- Richmond, VA
- Sweet Briar, VA (Sweet Briar College)
- Williamsburg, VA (College of William and Mary)
- Winchester, VA (Shenandoah University) 
- Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD
- Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, VA
- McCormick Civil War Institute, Winchester, VA (2)
- Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation
- Virginia Center for Civil War Studies, Blacksburg, VA
Table of Contents
Appendix 1. Presentations
Appendix 2. Workshops
Appendix 3. Field Trips / Tours
Appendix 4. Entertainments
Appendix 5. Speakers
Appendix 6. Topic Analysis
Appendix 7. List of Women
Appendix 8. List of Organizations
Document Updated: August 7, 2023
Appendix 1: List of Presentations
- What’s in a Name? Gendering the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion.
- Lead, Blood, and Ink: Family, Nation, and Sentiment in Civil War Hospital Correspondence.
- Female Citizens on the Domestic Front: Slaves and Mistresses in Civil War Virginia.
- Women Telegraph Operators in the Civil War.
- Media and Women During the Civil War.
- Permission to Come Onboard: Women Nurses on the USS Red Rover, 1861-1865.
- For Righteousness Sake: Christianity and the Women of the Confederacy.
- But Grandma Didn’t Carry a Gun.
- Female Soldiers.
- “My Dear Bishop:” Letters from a Catholic Sister Nurse in a Virginia Confederate Hospital to Charleston, SC Bishop Patrick Lynch.
- “Remember the Ladies:” Women’s War Efforts in the Pennsylvania Coal Region.
- A Hand to Work and a Heart to Feel: The Albany Army Relief Association and War Relief in Albany, NY During the Civil War.
- Women of the Twin Rivers.
- Banners, Flags, and Colors.
- My Old Kentucky Home – at War.
- The Camp Laundress.
- “In a Moment of Girlish Caprice She Signed Her Name ‘Howard Glyndon:’” The Remarkable Journalism Career of Laura Catherine Reddon.
- Women Lighthouse Keepers, 1861-1865.
- “Decency Compels Me to Employ My Fingers:” The Housekeeping Warfare of Mary Greenhow Lee.
- Before the Court: Women in the Union Courts-Martial.
- Camp Followers: Prostitutes and Other Fascinating Women.
- “Who is to Measure Your Ability?” Women and the Christian Commission.
- The Lives of the General’s Wives (or if the Army wanted you to have a wife they would have issued you one with your rifle).
- African American Women and Relations with “The State” in Civil War Virginia.
- A Divided Family in Occupied Memphis.
- Compassion in the Civil War: The Roles of the Daughters of Charity.
- Miss Major Pauline Cushman.
- “I am Thankful to be Strong Enough to Help:” Jewish Women of Richmond.
- Exile to Sweet Dixie: Euphemia Goldsborough, Confederate Nurse and Smuggler.
- Confederate Widowhood in Virginia.
- Rachel Weeping for her Children: Women and the Rituals of Mourning During the American Civil War.
- Mary Surratt, An American Tragedy.
- We Lived in Fear: Maryland Women and the Antietam Campaign.
- “Free to Teach, Free to Learn, Free to Choose:” Yankee Schoolmistresses and Former Slaves in the South.
- “A Teacher, an Agent, and an Angel to Her State:” The Life of Cordelia P. Harvey.
- Families Under Stress: The Richmond Bread Riot.
- Lois Adams, Civil Servant.
- “Poverty is no Disgrace, but Very Unhandy. Please Come Home.”
- “Do You Wonder that I Get the Blues?” Ellen Moore’s Wartime Negotiations.
- Roswell Grey: The Arrest and Deportation of North Georgia Mill Workers.
- Emilie Todd Helm: Lincoln’s Beloved Rebel Sister-in-Law.
- “If She Had Been a Man, She Would Have Been a Major General:” The Story of Mother Bickerdyke.
- The Union’s Secret Weapon: Harriet Tubman’s Military Career.
- They Called her Captain: The Amazing Life of Emily Virginia Mason.
- A Heavy Responsibility: Women and Men in Civil War Northern Virginia.
- Kady Brownell: A Tall and Taller Tale.
- The Role of Women Physicians in the Civil War.
- Madame Elizabeth: From Plantation to the Lincoln White House.
- Take Your Gun and Go: Images of Women in Civil War Era Songs and Ballads.
- Betty Van Metre: Vermont’s Rebel Heroine.
- Making War on Women and Women Making War: Confederate Women, Union Army Policy, and the Military Prisons of St. Louis During the Civil War.
- The Ties of the Past: The Gettysburg Diaries of Salome Myers Stewart, 1854-1922.
- “Play Dixie for Me:” Oral History and the Women of Western Virginia.
- The Stories Behind the Socks: Women’s Handiwork as Social and Political Expression.
- History Done Her Wrong: The True Story of Mary Custis Lee.
- The Civil War Diary of a Good Woman: Mary Samuella Hart Curd
- The Horizontal Trade.
- Listen Ladies One and All: Northern Soldiers Yearn for Their “Fair Cousins of the North.”
- Women on Trial: The Courts-Martial of Southern Women by the Union Army.
- Soliloquy for Sarah.
- The ‘Fairer’ Sex of the 1860s: How Patriotic Women Raised Money in Support of the Union.
- Period Correct: 19th Century Sanitary Protection.
- Confederate Women and the Cult of Sacrifice.
- Patriotism and Practicality: Civil War Era Homespun Dresses.
- Mary Martha Reed and the Florida Hospital in Richmond.
- The Union Army vs. Mary Jane Green: The Rebel Who Would Not be Tamed.
- Maria Lewis, Black Female Trooper of the 8th New York Cavalry: A Methodology.
- Calling on the Female Prisoners: Maintaining Gender Relationships in Alton Military Prison During the Civil War.
- Wee the People: The Patriotic Work of Children During the Civil War.
- Women at Antietam.
- Jane Claudia Saunders Johnson and the Struggle to Supply the 1st Maryland Regiment, CSA.
- They Married Confederate Officers.
- “Strong Evidence of Your Patriotism:” African American Soldiers’ Aid Societies and the Northern War Effort.
- “War? What War?” The Civil War in Women’s Periodicals Versus Personal Writings.
- Anna Ella Carroll, Political Advisor to President Abraham Lincoln.
- “Precariously Balanced Between North and South: Survival in Enemy Territory.” The Civil War Experience of a Virginia Woman Living in New York City – Mary Sullivan (1836-1933).
- Female Physicians in the Civil War Armies.
- “Veterans as Much as the Gray, Battle-scarred Old Soldiers:” Independent Memorial Groups, Civil War Memory, and Arkansas Women, 1865-1899.
- Women Soldiers at Gettysburg.
- Women of Philadephia.
- Nellie Chase Leith: Civil War Nurse with Attitude.
- Depot Women: Unknown Backbone of the Confederacy.
- Martha J. Coston: An Illuminating History.
- Copperhead Women.
- Becoming Useful: Confederate Women Composers.
- Cherokee Women.
- The Role of Chester County Women in the Great Central Fair.
- The Woman Maj. Gen. John Fulton Reynolds Left Behind.
- Letters From Behind the Lines.
- Women and the American Civil War: An Overview of Manuscript Sources at the Library of Congress.
- Glory on the Grave: The Civil War Legacy of Elizabeth Lyle Saxon.
- “The Very Earth Beneath our Feet Trembled:” [Business] Women of Greater Gettysburg and the Vicissitudes of War.
- Some North Carolina Women During the War.
- Cleveland and the Northern Ohio Sanitary Fair.
- In a Family Way: Clothing For, and Attitudes About, Pregnancy During the Civil War Era.
- The Struggles of Civil War Nurses as They Encountered the Pension System.
- The Washington Arsenal Explosion: The Forgotten Story of the Women Killed in the Capital’s Greatest Civil War Disaster.
- Caring for the Aged Mother, Widow and Child: Private Bills as a Means of Support for Civil War Dependents, 1865-1901.
- Southern Women React to the President’s Assassination.
- Kitty Payne and the Kidnapping of Free African Americans.
- “A Warm Reception:” Soldiers’ Homes and the Journey to Camp and Home.
- Eliza Wilson: A Daughter of Wisconsin.
- Singing Schools, Socials, and Sledding: Glimpses from the Ohio Home Front.
- Baltimore’s Confederate Women: Perpetuating a Culture of War.
- Double Agent or Vanishing Spy? The Civil War Mystery of Sarah Antoinette Gilbert.
- Immunity from the Consequences of War: Female Academies in Confederate North Carolina.
- Swift Fingered Sisters of Benevolence: Female Sanitary Fair Volunteers and the Promotion of Sewing Machines as a Patriotic Purchase.
- Women at Work During the Civil War: a Wheeling, WV Case Study.
- Wound that Never Healed: The Women of Arkansas and the Hardships They Faced During the Civil War.
- Ways of Providence are Passing Strange: Northern Women Interpret the Civil War.
- Love in Battle: Courtship in the Confederate South.
- North Carolina Flags.
- Vinnie Ream.
- Riots to Relief and Beyond: Baltimore Women and the Civil War.
- “Self-Devoted Women of the North:” Union Women in Maryland.
- Southern Relief Societies.
- Helen M. Noye – The Young Nurse.
- Harriet Patience Dame, Civil War Nurse.
- Survivors: African American Women Forge a Community.
- A Charmed Life: The Exploits of Baltimore’s Belle, Hetty Cary.
- The Women’s Relief Corps: Beyond the Battlefield.
- Women and the Allegheny Arsenal Tragedy.
- Finding the Farm Girl and Educating Her.
- Pennsylvania’s Only First Lady: Harriet Lane.
- “No Sacrifice is too Great.”
- Women in the Federal Workforce.
- Quaker Women of Civil War North Carolina.
- Clara Barton and the Missing Soldiers Office.
- Strange Ladies: Catholic Nuns of the Civil War.
- Samantha French: Telegrapher at Gettysburg.
- A Lesson in Defiance.
- Nancy Hart Militia.
- Fight for Female Pensions.
- Sophronia’s Boys: Ward D at Camp Letterman and Beyond
- The Johnson Family Women.
- “I Had Rather Die:” Rape in the Civil War.
- “Send Them Up the River:” Rosecrans and the “Public Women” of Nashville.
- Women and Children First: Rethinking the Civil War Evacuation of Atlanta.
- The Remarkable Life of Adelicia Aklen.
- The Christiana Riot of 1851.
- “My Name is a Heritage of Woe:” Varina Howell Davis and Varina Anne Davis in war and peace.
- Through the Eyes (and Pen) of Julia Wilbur.
- Searching for Maria Lewis, Black Female Trooper of the 8th New York Cavalry.
- The Challenge to Care: Lucy Mina Otey and the Ladies Relief Hospital in Lynchburg, VA.
- Inter Arma Silent Leges: The Wrongful Execution of Mary Surratt.
- In Consideration of Her Sex: Gender and the Post-War North at the Gettysburg National Homestead.
- Working Among the Freedmen: Elizabeth Alston Hunn Judd, Pennsylvania School Teacher.
- Mount Vernon: Preservation of a Nation’s Treasure During the American Civil War.
- A Further Look at Women Doctors in the Civil War.
- Delaware Women on the Home Front.
- Scandalous Washington.
- “Sorry that I have disturbed your mind:” Love and marriage in the Civil War
- Westering Women of the Civil War and Reconstruction.
- “Neither Maid, Wife, or Widow:” The Case of Marie Blaisdell
- Clarissa “Clara” Jones: Freelance Nurse.
- Elizabeth Proctor Thomas, the Lady Behind Fort Stevens.
- Within These Walls: African Americans in Civil War Medicine.
- Antonia Ford Willard, Confederate Spy.
- Women of Williamsburg During the Civil War.
- Arabella Barlow.
- Yorktown During the Civil War
- Nurses and the Hospital Ships Associated with Yorktown.
- Frances Hook: The Petticoat Warrior of Chicago’s Irish Legion.
- Rebecca Wright, Tom Laws, & the Opening of Sheridan’s 1864 Shenandoah Campaign.
- Women and the War in New Market, Virginia.
- Catholic Nuns and Protestant Soldiers in the American Civil War.
- The Cutler, Dawes, and Gates Ladies of Marietta, Ohio.
- First Person Impression of Rose O’Neal Greenhow.
- First Person Impression of Margaret Junkin Preston.
- Women of the Shenandoah During the Civil War.
- Aunt Cassie’s Dress.
- A Tale of Two Women at Belle Grove Plantation: Mary Rebecca Cooley Gordon and Lucy Walker during the Battle of Cedar Creek.
- Volunteerism and Fulfilling the SWCW Mission.
- Civil War Era Clothing in the Shippensburg Fashion Archives.
- Elizabeth Van Lew, Mary Bowser, and the Richmond Underground.
- Dorothea Dix: The Best Known, Unknown Woman of the War.
- Dorothea Dix’s Influence on Women in the US Military.
- New Perspectives on Women Caregivers at Gettysburg.
- Unsung Heroines: Black Nurses of the Civil War.
- The York, Pennsylvania U.S. Army General Hospital in the Gettysburg Campaign.
- Harriet Patience Dame.
Appendix 2: List of Workshops
- Copyrights and Copywrongs. (presented at 3 conferences)
- Supplementing Your Sources with Photographs
- “Looking for Tiny Davis:” Researching Women of the Civil War
- Documenting Women’s Lives: Sources in the U.S. Military History Institute
- Using Medical Records at the National Archives to Research Women in the Civil War
- What Do I Do Now? Shaping Your Research into a Book
- Domestic and Material Culture of the Civil War Era
- Accuracy in Reenacting / Living History and Reenacting (2 conferences)
- Providing, Presenting, and Preserving Confederate Flags and Banners
- Leave it to the Ladies: Restoring the White House of the Confederacy
- By the Sweat of their Brows: The Construction of Confederate Uniforms and the Preservation and Storage of Historic Garments
- Using Special Collections
- Writing Women’s Biographies
- Research Techniques: Primary Source Deadends – How to Keep Going When You’ve Run Out of Ideas
- Collections Techniques: Disaster Preparedness and Disaster Recovery
- Research Techniques: Biographical Research Q&A
- Collections Techniques: Caring for Your Collection on a Shoestring Budget
- Research Techniques: Fair Use – Your Use is Almost Never Fair
- Research: “Speed Dating.”
- Collections: “My Find.”
- Research: Military Records
- Collections: Tabletop Displays
- A Primer on Presentations
- Show and Tell (Antique Items)
- Who is Markie?
- Holding the Fort Alone: Giving Voice to the Women Left Behind
- Integrating Common Standards Curriculum and Civilian Roles in the Civil War
- Incorporating Civilian Roles in Hands-On Educational Activities
- Educational Resources Available Through the Maryland Historical Society
- Archival and Library Resources Available Through the Maryland Historical Society
- The Marketing of Barbara Fritchie
- Work Clothing
- Research Intervention
- Writing Seminar: Fiction and Non-Fiction
- Collections: Sharing Research and Greatest Finds
- USAHEC: Collections and Use
Appendix 3: List of Field Trips / Tours
- Civil War Frederick Walking Tour
- Emmitsburg in the Gettysburg Campaign
- National Museum of Civil War Medicine (2)
- Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore
- Antietam National Battlefield
- Fort McHenry
- Mordecai Square Historic Park, Raleigh
- North Carolina Museum of History
- Stagville Plantation
- Bennett Place
- Civil War Chambersburg Walking Tour
- Gettysburg bus tour (2)
- Yellow Springs Historic Site
- Jennie Wade House, Rupp House, and Shriver House in Gettysburg
- Gettysburg National Military Park
- US Army Heritage and Education Center at Carlisle (2)
- Civil War Pittsburgh bus tour
- Heinz Historical Center, Pittsburgh
- Tennessee State Museum.
- Belle Mead Plantation
- The Hermitage
- Franklin Battlefield
- Carter House
- Carnton Plantation
- Belmont Mansion
- Civil War Winchester Walking Tour
- Stonewall Jackson Headquarters, Winchester
- Mt. Hebron Cemetery, Winchester
- Old City Cemetery, Lynchburg
- Sweet Briar College Walking Tour
- Civil War Lynchburg Walking Tour
- Civil War Richmond bus tour
- Museum of the Confederacy and White House of the Confederacy
- Museum of the Confederacy at Appomattox
- Smithfield Plantation and Cemetery, Virginia
- Arlington National Cemetery and Arlington House
- Appomattox Court House National Historic Site
- Old Town Alexandria Walking Tour
- Historic Jamestowne
- Sherwood Forest
- Berkeley Plantation at Harrison’s Landing
- Frontier Culture Museum, Staunton
- Civil War Downtown Washington, DC
- Library of Congress
- National Building Museum (formerly the Pension Bureau Building)
- Smithsonian’s Portrait Gallery and Museum of American Art (formerly the Patent Office Building)
- African-American Civil War Monument
- African-American Civil War Museum
- Clara Barton Missing Soldiers Office
- Frederick Douglass Home
- The Lincoln Cottage
Appendix 4: List of Entertainments
- Civil War Sing-A-Long (2)
- Marshall and Co. of Fredericksburg (Civil War music)
- Rivanna River Shape Note Singers
- The Unsexing of Emma Edmonds (a film)
- Victorian Dance Ensemble
Appendix 5: List of speakers
(presentations and workshops)
Anthony, Susan (4)
Bartlett, Sara (3)
Belt, Marva (3)
Berkey, Jonathan (2)
Bierle, Sarah (2)
Blanton, DeAnne (3)
Christie, Jeanne (3)
Christen, Glenna Jo (2)
Christen, William (2)
Clements, Derek C.
Conklin, Eileen (2)
Coski, Ruth Ann (2)
Curran, Thomas (2)
Daly, Timothy (2)
Estilow, Betsy (2)
Fitzpatrick, Michael (2)
Floyd, Claudia (3)
Frank, Lisa F.
Gallante-DeAngelis, Meg (5)
Graf, Mercedes (2)
Gross, Jennifer L.
Henderson, Anita (2)
Hudson, Carson O.
Hughes, Susan L.
Jensen, Juanita Leisch (9)
Jones, Judy Yaeger
King, Wendy (2)
Krowl, Michelle (2)
Ladd, Georgia C.
Larson, C. Kay
Lowry, Beverly (2)
Lowry, Thomas (2)
Maher, Sr. Mary Denis
Mangan, Bonnie (2)
Matema, ZSun-nee Kimball
McKean, Brenda (2)
McNeil, Sr. Betty Ann
Meeker, Justin (2)
Mehaffey, Karen Rae (4)
Melchiori, Marie (3)
Mescher, Virginia (5)
Metheny, Hannah (2)
Mingus, Scott Sr.
Morrison, Robert Hall
Newmark, Jill (2)
Richard, Patricia (4)
Robertson, James I.
Rose, Rebecca (4)
Schwatka, Kimberly (2)
Slawson, Robert (2)
Steenhagen, Polly (2)
Thomas, Sarah S.
Tice, Douglas O.
Van Zelm, Antoinette
Webb, Anne C.
Whitacre, Paula (2)
Williams, Florence K.
Wilson, Kathleen C.
Youhn, Susan (4)
Young, Robin (2)
Appendix 6: Topic Analysis
Women’s Occupations and Wartime Roles
- Arsenal employee [includes arsenal disasters] (2)
- Civil Servant (3)
- Dress maker / seamstress (5)
- Doctor (3)
- Lighthouse keeper
- Mill worker
- Nun (4)
- Nurse & matron (19)
- Relief Worker (6)
- Sex Worker (2)
- Soldier (6)
- Spy (8)
- Teacher (2)
- Telegraph operator (2)
- Vivandiere (2)
- Writer / author (3)
- “Camp followers”
- Clothing (4)
- Confederate Memory (4)
- Education [female] (2)
- Flags (3)
- Going west
- Homefront becoming the warfront (3)
- Material culture (2)
- The Press (4)
- Religion / Spiritualism (3)
- Riots (3)
- Sanitary Fairs (4)
- Sewing machines
- Trials and Incarceration (6)
- Union pensions (4)
- Widowhood, wartime
- Wives, military (4)
- Women’s roles, survey
Minority and Marginalized Populations
- African Americans (18)
- Indigenous Women
- Jewish women
- Quakers (2)
Geographic Locations (“women of”)
- Arkansas (2)
- Maryland (2)
- North Carolina (2)
- Virginia (3)
Regions and Counties:
- Antietam area of MD (2)
- Chester Co., PA
- Coal Region of PA
- Northern VA
- Shenandoah Valley, VA
- Western VA
- Twin Rivers area of TN
Cities and Towns:
- Albany, NY
- Atlanta, GA
- Baltimore, MD (2)
- Cleveland, OH
- Gettysburg, PA (2)
- Philadelphia, PA
- Marietta, OH
- Memphis, TN
- New Market, VA
- Richmond, VA (2)
- Washington, DC
- Williamsburg, VA
- Wheeling, WV
- York, PA
- Yorktown, VA
- Educational resources (3)
- Historical research (20)
- Historic Preservation [collections and sites] (6)
- Presentations and Exhibits Tutorial (2)
- Reenacting / Living History Tutorial (2)
- Writing and Publishing (4)
Appendix 7: List of Individual Women Discussed
Bickerdyke, Mary Ann
Carroll, Anna Ella
Carter, Martha Williams
Curd, Mary Hart
Dame, Harriet P. (2)
Davis, Varina Howell and Varina Anne
Dawes, Sarah C.
Dix, Dorothea (2)
Gates, Mary B.
Gilbert, Sarah A.
Green, Mary Jane
Greenhow, Rose O’Neal
Helm, Emilie Todd
Hewitt, Catharine M.
Howard, Elizabeth Key
Johnson, Jane S.
Judd, Elizabeth Hunn
Lee, Mary Custis (2)
Lee, Mary Greenhow
Leith, Nellie Chase
Lewis, Maria (2)
Mason, Emily Virginia
Otey, Lucy Mina
Preston, Margaret Junkin
Smart, Almira Curtis
Surratt, Mary (2)
Van Lew, Elizabeth
Van Metre, Betty
Wright, Rebecca M.
Appendix 7: List of Organizations Discussed
Gettysburg National Homestead
Nancy Hart Militia
Mount Vernon Ladies Association
Women’s Relief Corps